Adana Agreement Between Syria And Turkey



The Adana agreement was put back on the negotiating table after Turkey has a clear military presence in the Syrian territories and intends to establish a “safe zone” east of the Euphrates River in northern Syria, in agreement with Washington. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan called for a new discussion on the Adana agreement on 24 January 2019. Moscow is ready to help with this cooperation, Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said in the southern Russian city of Sochi. The dialogue between Damascus and the Syrian Kurds has now yielded concrete results, he added. Cooperation between the Syrian state and Turkey lasted only until 2011, when Damascus launched a violent action against its opponents, triggering a large-scale war. Since then, Damascus has not only authorized the Syrian PKK member organization to operate in the northern region of the country, but has also collaborated with the armed group on several occasions. The Euphrates dispute was resolved in 1992 by the signing of a security protocol (water-sharing contract) between the two countries. However, the agreement was denounced for Turkey because it continued its projects in the banks of the Euphrates, which led to the use of the Kurds of Hafiz al-Assad as a map printed on Turkey. Assad also tried to provoke Ankara by supporting the activities of the Kurdistan Workers` Party (PKK) in Syria. “Regime forces could control and implement the agreement [1998] could be possible. This scenario does not mean that Turkey will come into contact with the regime, but it will welcome the regime that respects the agreement,” he said. Syria`s decision to expel Ocalan and negotiate with Turkey was linked to its concern about the strength of the Turkish army in the face of its own weakness.

However, a few years later, Syrian President Bashar Assad said in an interview that “the deportation of Ocalan was not out of fear, but because we preferred you. We could either be friends with the Turkish people, or prefer the Kurds and lose you. As our preference was with you, we sent Ocalan. In signing the agreement, Syria recognized the PKK as a terrorist organization and pledged not to provide financial, logistical or military support. Until 2011, Turkey benefited greatly from the agreement in its fight against the PKK. However, when the civil war broke out in Syria, Assad was inclined to replay the PKK`s map against Turkey because his northern neighbour had taken a hard stance and criticized him. Article 1 of the Adana Agreement states that “on the basis of the principle of reciprocity, Syria will not allow any activity that originates from its territory and that would compromise Turkey`s security and stability.” However, several reports during the war suggested that Syria had given the PKK carte blanche on its soil and that the Syrian security services had murdered moderate Kurdish politicians to allow the PKK to re-assert itself in kurdish areas. Turkey is now at serious Syrian threat due to the activities of the People`s Protection Units (YPG), the Syrian branch of the PKK. Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said: “We think he (Putin) referred to this protocol, which means that Turkey can intervene in (Syria).