In 1991, the United States and Canada signed a cross-border air pollution agreement that allows pollutants emitted in one place to travel long distances, affecting air quality at their sources and many kilometres away. The 1991 agreement resulted in a reduction in acid rain in the 1990s and was expanded in 2000 to reduce cross-border smog emissions under the Ozone Annex. Keyword: coastal area management, data collection, international treaty, inland water, freshwater quality/freshwater pollution, pollution control, air quality, health, environment, measurements, research, change, emissions. The United States and Canada committed to addressing cross-border air pollution issues in the 1991 International Aviation Agreement (AQA), a bilateral executive agreement. The AQA has set a framework for addressing common concerns about cross-border air pollution and has set targets for each country to reduce emissions that lead to acid deposition in the first annex of the agreement. An additional annex to the agreement focused on scientific cooperation and, in 1997, the parties signed a “commitment to develop a common action plan to combat cross-border air pollution” to jointly address the common problems of ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM). While scientific assessment measures were underway to better understand cross-border PM issues, in 2000 the parties established an annex on ground-level ozone control in the eastern border region. The “Ozone” Annex was added to the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement (December 2000) to combat cross-border air pollution, which results in high air quality from ground-level ozone, an important component of smog.
The long-term goal of the Ozone Annex is to achieve ozone quality standards in both countries. With regard to the cross-border pollution flows that cause ozone, the Ozone Annex obliges both countries to reduce their emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, precursors to ground-level ozone. Keywords: Extensive air pollution, public participation, public health, ozone layer, renewable energy, cross-border impact, emissions trading, emissions, air quality/air pollution, research, monitoring As part of the agreement, the IJC invites a public position every two years and offers the governments of Canada and the United States a summary of comments to help them implement the agreement. Nothing in this agreement diminishes the rights and obligations of the parties in other international agreements that oppose them, including the rights and obligations contained in the Border Waters Treaty and the 1978 Great Lakes Water Quality Convention, as amended. whereas cross-border air pollution can cause considerable damage to natural resources of vital ecological, cultural and economic importance and to human health in both countries; whereas emissions of air pollutants from sources within their countries do not lead to significant cross-border pollution; whereas cross-border air pollution can be effectively reduced through cooperative or coordinated measures to control emissions of air pollutants in both countries; Recalling their efforts to control air pollution and improve air quality resulting from these efforts in both countries, the intention to address global atmospheric issues, such as climate change and stratospheric ocean depletion in other for a; Reaffirming Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration, which states that “in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, States have the sovereign right to use their own resources within their own environmental policy and have a responsibility to ensure that activities under their jurisdiction or control do not harm the environment of other states or territories located.